Björn I. Border province: the main features of the development of North Karelia after World War II // Studia Humanitatis Borealis. 2015. Vol. 5. № 2. P. 4‒16.



Issue № 2

HISTORY

Border province: the main features of the development of North Karelia after World War II

Björn
   Ismo
Doctor of Philosophy (history) PhD,
Senior Researcher University of Eastern Finland (Joensuu Campus) Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies, Karelian Institute Docent (Adjunct Professor) University Of Eastern Finland and University of Turku (Finnish history),
Joensuu, Finland, ismo.bjorn@uef.fi
Ключевые слова:
history
border
borderland
(Finnish) North Karelia
Russia
rural exodus
economic development
migration
tourism
Аннотация: The history of Province of North Karelia from the Second World War to this day is characterized by a neighborhood with the Soviet Union, and Russia since 1992. The economic development of North Karelia has been in the line with the same trends in the neighboring regions of Finland and also the wider Western European developments. But in North Karelia, the socio-economic development has, however, been more angular and changes abrupt. Rapid population growth after the war in the 1940s and in the 1950s was followed even by faster outward migration. In the 1960s and the 1970s rural exodus shook the North Karelia rural areas exceptionally strong. At the same time Joensuu and other urban areas increased their resident population. Women came to the labor market. The industrialization of North Karelia was strong in the 1970s and the industrial structure of region changed. Agriculture and forestry were still in a strong position, but there was more other industrial production too, including clothing industry, food manufacturing industry and metal industry. Particularly, the largest growth was in social and health sector as everywhere in Finland. But in North Karelia new possibilities for work were more important than in any other county in Finland. Service jobs grew even faster here and it meant more jobs for women, in particular. The changes were based partly on Finland’s area development policy, partly on the expansion of education and, also, more broadly on the welfare state, especially in the social and health development. The development of the industry came to a halt in the 1980s, followed by a steep decline in the early 1990s. Economic depression hit heavily especially forest industry and construction. The economic recovery began in the mid-1990s and the share of the industrial labor force rose to the same level as what it had been before the depression. By this time closed eastern border between Finland and Russia was opening which totally changed the North Karelia’s overall economic situation. From now on, previously peripheral North Karelia is in the middle of the Finnish-Russian cooperation area and part of the EU-Russia cooperation zone too. Border crossings and trans-border trade were increasing, joint enterprises and cooperation established. For North Karelia, it means more Russian tourists and residents. Especially many Russian women got married across the border.

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Is passed for the press: 11 january 2016 year

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