Pirozhkova S. CONTINUITY AND INCOMMENSURABILITY OF HUMANISTIC CONCEPTS // Studia Humanitatis Borealis. 2022. Vol. 1. № 4. P. 14‒24.

DOI: 10.15393/j12.art.2022.3902

Issue № 4



Candidate of Philosophical Sciences,
Senior research fellow, Department of Theory of Knowledge,
Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Moscow, Russian Federation, pirozhkovasv@gmail.ru
Ключевые слова:
human nature
Аннотация: The article discusses the problem of the transformation of the humanistic worldview as one of the key factors determining the nature of strategic decisions taken in various fields of practice. The author builds on the dual understanding of humanism – as a special worldview that emerged in the Renaissance, on the one hand, and as an umbrella term that brings together various systems of views, which for one reason or another assign a special – central – role and value to a person, on the other. The second understanding makes it possible to consider humanism in diachronic terms as a worldview evolving from one form to another, but from a diachronic perspective it opens up a picture of systems of views and concepts that are in opposition to each other. This thesis is elaborated through the example of the analysis of two discussions about humanism, one of which unfolded within the framework of the philosophy of existence, and the second is still ongoing around the project of human improvement. It is shown that in both cases the main conflict is in the opposition of the predetermined essence/nature of a human and their freedom. It is proved that, despite the justified criticism of the concepts of closed humanism, i.e. those that postulate the existence of a special nature, special qualities, and thus a special human mission, even postulating the fact of the absolute freedom as a starting point does not save certain philosophical interpretations of humanism from the prospect of becoming a totalitarian anthropological project. It is also proved that in the context of the development of biotechnology and artificial intelligence, both the rejection of an attempt to fix the essence of a human and recognizing that a human can be anyone is fraught with loss of identity of both individuals and socio-cultural communities. It is concluded that it is necessary to search for a different strategy of humanistic discourse (as a dispute of different humanistic concepts), preventing its transformation into a struggle of different wills to power, which is especially vividly manifested in the discussions between transhumanists and their opponents.

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Is received: 24 december 2022 year
Is passed for the press: 24 december 2022 year

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